Hadrian’s Wall is a UNESCO World Heritage Site which spans 84 miles from coast to coast, stretching from Wallsend on the River Tyne in the east to Bowness-on-Solway in the west.
The wall was built as a defensive fortification of the Roman province of Britannia. Its construction began in 122 AD under the reign of the emperor Hadrian. In addition to the wall's military role, its gates served as customs posts.
It is estimated to have stood at an average of 12 feet high, with a tower every third of a mile, adding more to the dimensions of the structure. These towers were an alternating series of forts (each housing up to 600 men) and manned milecastles (operated by 12- 20 men). Once its construction was finished, it is believed that the wall was covered in plaster and whitewashed, "its shining surface reflected the sunlight and was visible for miles around".
Running along the south side of the Wall is a 10ft deep, ditch-like construction called the Vallum. Along the south of the vallumw is a 20ft high mound of dirt.
Much of the wall has now disappeared. As it fell into ruin and over the centuries the stone was reused in other local buildings and farms.